Egypt profile

  • Egypt Formal Name: Arab Republic of Egypt.
  • Short Form: Egypt.
  • A term for Citizens: Egyptian(s).
  • Capital: Cairo.
  • Size: ‎
Egypt profile approximately 1 million square kilometers. Topography: Four ‎major regions: Nile Valley and Delta, where about 99 percent of the population ‎lives; Western Desert; Eastern Desert; and the Sinai Peninsula. ‎
  • Climate:
Except for modest amounts of rainfall along the Mediterranean coast, ‎precipitation ranges from minimal to nonexistent. Mild winters (November to ‎April) and hot summers (May to October).‎   EGYPT SOCIETY
  • Population: ‎
Estimated at more than 52.5 million in mid1990, mostly concentrated along ‎banks of Nile River, Annual growth rate estimated at 2.6 percent.‎
  • Education and Literacy:‎
Education compulsory for the basic nine-year cycle but attendance not enforced; ‎approximately 16 percent of school-age children did not attend.‎ Literacy approximately 45 percent in 1990.‎
  • Egypt profile Health and Welfare:‎
  • Ministry of Health provided health care at a variety of public medical facilities.‎
  • Urban-rural distribution of health care generally biased in favor of larger cities.‎
  • Average nutrition compared favorably with most middle- and low-income ‎‎
  • Average life expectancy at birth fifty-nine years for men and sixty years for ‎women in 1989.
  • Language: Arabic.‎
  • Ethnic Groups:‎
Egyptians, Bedouins, Greeks, Nubians, Armenians, and Berbers.‎
  • Religion:
Almost 90 percent Sunni Muslims, 8.5 percent Coptic Christians, 1.5 percent ‎other Christians.‎   EGYPT ECONOMY  
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$45.08 billion, or US$867 per capita in ‎‎
  • The economy experienced sluggish growth after the mid-1980s.
  • Agriculture:
Single largest source of employment; contributed 15 percent of ‎GDP in 1987. Major crops by area planted (in descending order): clover for ‎livestock feed, corn, wheat, vegetables, rice, cotton, and fruit. Heavily ‎dependent on food imports. Some reforms in pricing implemented in the 1980s.‎
  • Industry:
  • Contributed 34 percent of GDP in 1987. Share of manufacturing in GDP 12 ‎percent; sector stagnated in the 1980s.‎
  • Manufacturing produced mainly consumer goods but also some basic ‎industries such as iron and steel, aluminum, and cement. Manufacturing ‎dominated by the public sector; consensus that sector needed reform. Oil share of ‎GDP fell considerably with a crash of oil prices in late 1985.‎
  • Oil production averaged 42.7 tons per year between 1984 and 1988. Gas ‎acquiring added importance in the 1980s.‎
  • Exports:
US$4.8 billion in 1988, of which oil was US$3.1 billion, Textiles US$458 ‎million and other manufacturing US$810 million, Cotton (major export before ‎the late 1970s) US$310 million, Exports stagnated in 1980s.‎
  • Imports:
US$10.6 billion, of which intermediate goods US$3.7 billion, capital goods ‎US$3 billion, consumer goods US$2 billion, and food and agriculture US$1.7 ‎billion, the Trade deficit increased rapidly in the first half of the 1980s and stabilized in ‎the second half.‎
  • Debit:
Civilian US$35 billion in 1988 (forecast); military US$10.8 billion, ‎Negotiations with International Monetary Fund continuing in early 1990 on ‎debt rescheduling and economic restructuring.‎
  • Currency:
Egyptian pound (£E) consists of 100 piasters. In early 1990, worth between ‎US$1.00 and US$1.50 depending on the applicable exchange rate. Fiscal Year: Since July 1, 1980, July 1 through June 30.‎   EGYPT TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: ‎   More than 4,800 kilometers of track, 950 kilometers of which double-tracked,  ‎Bulk of system standard gauge (1.435 meters), but 347 kilometers narrow ‎gauge (0.75 meters). Twenty-five-kilometer suburban transit link between Cairo ‎and industrial suburbs of Hulwan electrified. The southern part of Cairo Metro ‎opened 1987; northeast line opened 1989. Ferry at Aswan connects Egyptian ‎Railways to Sudanese system.‎
  • Roads:
More than 49,000 kilometers, of which about 15,000 kilometers paved, 2,500 ‎kilometers gravel, 31,500 kilometers earthen.‎
  • Inland Waterways:
About 3,500 kilometers, consisting mainly of Nile River and several canals in ‎Delta.‎
  • Suez Canal:
About 160 kilometers for international shipping between Red and ‎Mediterranean seas, Reopened in 1975. Capable of handling ships of 150,000 ‎deadweight tons laden and 16 meters draft. In 1987 17,541 ships transited ‎canal with 257,000 tons of cargo, earning Egypt US$1.22 billion.‎
  • Ports:
Alexandria main port,  Port Said, and Suez other two large ports,  Phosphates ‎shipped from Bur Safaga on the Red Sea,  Port near Alexandria remained ‎under construction in 1990.
  • Pipelines:
About 1,400 kilometers for domestic crude oil and refined products ‎plus about 600 kilometers for natural gas.‎
  • Airports:
Sixty-six airfields but only Cairo and Alexandria handled international traffic. Telecommunications: Well developed radio and television facilities; shortage of ‎telephones. Numerous international communications links.‎   EGYPT GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS  
  • Government:
Constitution of 1971 delegates majority of power to the president, ‎who dominates two-chamber legislature–lower People’s Assembly and upper ‎Consultative Council, created in 1978 from the old Central Committee of the ‎Arab Socialist Union–and judiciary, although each constitutionally ‎independent. President possesses virtually unrestricted power to appoint and ‎dismiss officials, including vice president or vice-presidents, prime minister ‎and members of Council of Ministers, military officers, and governors of the ‎twenty-six administrative subdivisions known as governorates.‎
  • Politics:
President Hosni Mubarak (1981- ), former military officer, as were his ‎predecessors: Gamal Abdul Nasser (1954-70) and Anwar as Sadat (1970-81). ‎Nasser was leader and Sadat member of Free Officers’ group that overthrew ‎the monarchy in 1952 Revolution. President dominated National Democratic Party ‎formed in 1977. Opposition composed of a number of secular and religious ‎parties in the legislature, of which Muslim Brotherhood was the chief, and some ‎no parliamentary Islamic extremist groups.‎  
  • International Organizations:
Member of United Nations and its specialized agencies; Organization of ‎African Unity; and Nonaligned Movement., Founding member of League of ‎Arab States (Arab League), headquartered in Cairo until after Egypt ‎profile signed the peace treaty with Israel in March 1979. Arab League expelled ‎Egypt and moved headquarters out of the country. In 1990 Arab League ‎headquarters scheduled to return to Cairo.‎ EGYPT NATIONAL SECURITY
  • Armed Forces (1989):
Total personnel on active duty 445,000, including draftees mostly serving for ‎three years., Reserves totaled about 300,000. Component services: army of ‎‎320,000 (estimated 180,000 conscripts), navy of 20,000 including 2,000 Coast ‎Guard (10,000 conscripts), and air force of 30,000 (10,000 conscripts). Air ‎Defense Force separate service of 80,000 (50,000 conscripts).‎
  • Major Tactical Military Units (1988):
Army: four armored divisions, six mechanized infantry divisions, two infantry ‎divisions, four independent infantry brigades, three mechanized brigades, one ‎armored brigade, two airmobile brigades, one paratroop brigade, Republican ‎Guard armored brigade, two heavy mortar brigades, fourteen artillery brigades, ‎two surface-to-surface missile (SSM) regiments, and seven commando groups.‎
  • Navy:
Twelve submarines, one destroyer (training), five frigates, twenty-five fast-‎attack craft (missile), eighteen fast attack craft (torpedo), minesweepers, and ‎landing ships.‎
  • Air Force:
About 440 combat aircraft and 72 armed helicopters; force organized into one ‎bomber squadron, ten fighter-ground attack squadrons, thirteen fighter ‎squadrons, two reconnaissance squadrons, and fifteen helicopter squadrons, ‎plus electronic monitoring, early warning, transport, and training aircraft. Air ‎Defense Force organized into more than 230 battalions of antiaircraft guns and ‎SAMs.‎
  • Military Equipment (1989):
Tanks and armored personnel vehicles a mix of older Soviet and newer United ‎States models.‎ Other major equipment included Soviet artillery and mortars; Soviet, French, ‎United States, and British antitank rockets and missiles; and mostly Soviet ‎tactical air defense weapons.‎ Egypt planned to co-produce 540 Abrams M1A1 tanks with the United States ‎beginning in 1991. Air force fighters included F-16s and F-4s from the United ‎States and Mirage 2000s from France, backed by a large number of older Soviet ‎designs.‎ Most fighting ships of Soviet or Chinese origin, although fleet included two ‎modern frigates built in Spain and six British missile boats.‎ Air Defense Force had more than 600 Soviet SA-2 and SA-3 SAMs plus 108 ‎improved Hawk SAMs from the United States.‎
  • Defense Budget:
Authoritative data not available although minister of defense claimed to spend ‎‎£E2.4 billion or 10 percent of total government outlays in 1989.‎ Other sources believed defense expenditures twice as high as claimed, even ‎excluding US$1.3 billion in military aid from the United States, aid from Saudi ‎Arabia, and income from other sources such as foreign sales of the domestic ‎defense industry.‎
  • Internal Security Forces:
Principal security agencies– national police force of more than about 122,000 ‎members and Central Security Forces, a paramilitary body of about 300,000, ‎mostly conscripts, which augmented regular police in guarding buildings and ‎strategic sites and controlling demonstrations. Several other government ‎agencies had own law enforcement bodies.‎ General Directorate for State Security Investigations main intelligence ‎organization monitoring suspected subversive and opposition groups and ‎suppressing Islamic extremists  

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