Egypt Profile

Egypt profile · Egypt Formal Name: Arab Republic of Egypt. · Short Form: Egypt. · Term for Citizens: Egyptian(s). · Capital: Cairo. EGYPT GEOGRAPHY v Size: ‎ Egypt profile approximately 1 million square kilometers. Topography: Four ‎major regions: Nile Valley and Delta, where about 99 percent of the population ‎lives; Western Desert; Eastern Desert; and the Sinai Peninsula. ‎ v Climate: Except for modest amounts of rainfall along the Mediterranean coast, ‎precipitation ranges from minimal to nonexistent. Mild winters (November to ‎April) and hot summers (May to October).‎ EGYPT SOCIETY v Population: ‎ Estimated at more than 52.5 million in mid1990, mostly concentrated along ‎banks of Nile River, Annual growth rate estimated at 2.6 percent.‎ v Education and Literacy:‎ Education compulsory for a basic nine-year cycle but attendance not enforced; ‎approximately 16 percent of school-age children did not attend.‎ Literacy approximately 45 percent in 1990.‎ v Egypt profile Health and Welfare:‎ · Ministry of Health provided health care at a variety of public medical facilities.‎ · Urban-rural distribution of health care generally biased in favor of larger cities.‎ · Average nutrition compared favorably with most middle- and low-income ‎countries.‎ · Average life expectancy at birth fifty-nine years for men and sixty years for ‎women in 1989. v Language: Arabic.‎ v Ethnic Groups:‎ Egyptians, Bedouins, Greeks, Nubians, Armenians, and Berbers.‎ v Religion:‎ Almost 90 percent Sunni Muslims, 8.5 percent Coptic Christians, 1.5 percent ‎other Christians.‎ EGYPT ECONOMY · Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$45.08 billion, or US$867 per capita in ‎‎1988. · Economy experienced sluggish growth after the mid-1980s. v Agriculture: Single largest source of employment; contributed 15 percent of ‎GDP in 1987. Major crops by area planted (in descending order): clover for ‎livestock feed, corn, wheat, vegetables, rice, cotton, and fruit. Heavily ‎dependent on food imports. Some reforms in pricing implemented in the 1980s.‎ v Industry: · Contributed 34 percent of GDP in 1987. Share of manufacturing in GDP 12 ‎percent; sector stagnated in the 1980s.‎ · Manufacturing produced mainly consumer goods but also some basic ‎industries such as iron and steel, aluminum, and cement. Manufacturing ‎dominated by the public sector; consensus that sector needed reform. Oil share of ‎GDP fell considerably with a crash of oil prices in late 1985.‎ · Oil production averaged 42.7 tons per year between 1984 and 1988. Gas ‎acquiring added importance in the 1980s.‎ v Exports:‎ US$4.8 billion in 1988, of which oil was US$3.1 billion, Textiles US$458 ‎million and other manufacturing US$810 million, Cotton (major export before ‎the late 1970s) US$310 million, Exports stagnated in 1980s.‎ v Imports:‎ US$10.6 billion, of which intermediate goods US$3.7 billion, capital goods ‎US$3 billion, consumer goods US$2 billion, and food and agriculture US$1.7 ‎billion, the Trade deficit increased rapidly in the first half of the 1980s and stabilized in ‎the second half.‎ v Debit:‎ Civilian US$35 billion in 1988 (forecast); military US$10.8 billion, ‎Negotiations with International Monetary Fund continuing in early 1990 on ‎debt rescheduling and economic restructuring.‎ v Currency:‎ Egyptian pound (£E) consists of 100 piasters. In early 1990, worth between ‎US$1.00 and US$1.50 depending on the applicable exchange rate. Fiscal Year: Since July 1, 1980, July 1 through June 30.‎ EGYPT TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: ‎ More than 4,800 kilometers of track, 950 kilometers of which double-tracked, ‎Bulk of system standard gauge (1.435 meters), but 347 kilometers narrow ‎gauge (0.75 meters). Twenty-five-kilometer suburban transit link between Cairo ‎and industrial suburbs of Hulwan electrified. The southern part of Cairo Metro ‎opened 1987; northeast line opened 1989. Ferry at Aswan connects Egyptian ‎Railways to Sudanese system.‎ v Roads:‎ More than 49,000 kilometers, of which about 15,000 kilometers paved, 2,500 ‎kilometers gravel, 31,500 kilometers earthen.‎ v Inland Waterways:‎ About 3,500 kilometers, consisting mainly of Nile River and several canals in ‎Delta.‎ v Suez Canal:‎ About 160 kilometers for international shipping between Red and ‎Mediterranean seas, Reopened in 1975. Capable of handling ships of 150,000 ‎deadweight tons laden and 16 meters draft. In 1987 17,541 ships transited ‎canal with 257,000 tons of cargo, earning Egypt US$1.22 billion.‎ v Ports:‎ Alexandria main port, Port Said, and Suez other two large ports, Phosphates ‎shipped from Bur Safaga on the Red Sea, Port near Alexandria remained ‎under construction in 1990. v Pipelines: About 1,400 kilometers for domestic crude oil and refined products ‎plus about 600 kilometers for natural gas.‎ v Airports:‎ Sixty-six airfields but only Cairo and Alexandria handled international traffic. Telecommunications: Well developed radio and television facilities; shortage of ‎telephones. Numerous international communications links.‎ EGYPT GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS v Government: Constitution of 1971 delegates majority of power to the president, ‎who dominates two-chamber legislature–lower People’s Assembly and upper ‎Consultative Council, created in 1978 from the old Central Committee of the ‎Arab Socialist Union–and judiciary, although each constitutionally ‎independent. President possesses virtually unrestricted power to appoint and ‎dismiss officials, including vice president or vice-presidents, prime minister ‎and members of Council of Ministers, military officers, and governors of the ‎twenty-six administrative subdivisions known as governorates.‎ v Politics:‎ President Hosni Mubarak (1981- ), former military officer, as were his ‎predecessors: Gamal Abdul Nasser (1954-70) and Anwar as Sadat (1970-81). ‎Nasser was leader and Sadat member of Free Officers’ group that overthrew ‎the monarchy in 1952 Revolution. President dominated National Democratic Party ‎formed in 1977. Opposition composed of a number of secular and religious ‎parties in the legislature, of which Muslim Brotherhood was the chief, and some ‎no parliamentary Islamic extremist groups.‎ v International Organizations:‎ Member of United Nations and its specialized agencies; Organization of ‎African Unity; and Nonaligned Movement., Founding member of League of ‎Arab States (Arab League), headquartered in Cairo until after Egypt ‎profile signed a peace treaty with Israel in March 1979. Arab League expelled ‎Egypt and moved headquarters out of the country. In 1990 Arab League ‎headquarters scheduled to return to Cairo.‎ EGYPT NATIONAL SECURITY v Armed Forces (1989):‎ Total personnel on active duty 445,000, including draftees mostly serving for ‎three years., Reserves totaled about 300,000. Component services: army of ‎‎320,000 (estimated 180,000 conscripts), navy of 20,000 including 2,000 Coast ‎Guard (10,000 conscripts), and air force of 30,000 (10,000 conscripts). Air ‎Defense Force separate service of 80,000 (50,000 conscripts).‎ v Major Tactical Military Units (1988):‎ Army: four armored divisions, six mechanized infantry divisions, two infantry ‎divisions, four independent infantry brigades, three mechanized brigades, one ‎armored brigade, two airmobile brigades, one paratroop brigade, Republican ‎Guard armored brigade, two heavy mortar brigades, fourteen artillery brigades, ‎two surface-to-surface missile (SSM) regiments, and seven commando groups.‎ v Navy:‎ Twelve submarines, one destroyer (training), five frigates, twenty-five fast-‎attack craft (missile), eighteen fast attack craft (torpedo), minesweepers, and ‎landing ships.‎ v Air Force:‎ About 440 combat aircraft and 72 armed helicopters; force organized into one ‎bomber squadron, ten fighter-ground attack squadrons, thirteen fighter ‎squadrons, two reconnaissance squadrons, and fifteen helicopter squadrons, ‎plus electronic monitoring, early warning, transport, and training aircraft. Air ‎Defense Force organized into more than 230 battalions of antiaircraft guns and ‎SAMs.‎ v Military Equipment (1989):‎ Tanks and armored personnel vehicles a mix of older Soviet and newer United ‎States models.‎ Other major equipment included Soviet artillery and mortars; Soviet, French, ‎United States, and British antitank rockets and missiles; and mostly Soviet ‎tactical air defense weapons.‎ Egypt planned to co-produce 540 Abrams M1A1 tanks with the United States ‎beginning in 1991. Air force fighters included F-16s and F-4s from the United ‎States and Mirage 2000s from France, backed by a large number of older Soviet ‎designs.‎ Most fighting ships of Soviet or Chinese origin, although fleet included two ‎modern frigates built in Spain and six British missile boats.‎ Air Defense Force had more than 600 Soviet SA-2 and SA-3 SAMs plus 108 ‎improved Hawk SAMs from the United States.‎ v Defense Budget:‎ Authoritative data not available although minister of defense claimed to spend ‎‎£E2.4 billion or 10 percent of total government outlays in 1989.‎ Other sources believed defense expenditures twice as high as claimed, even ‎excluding US$1.3 billion in military aid from the United States, aid from Saudi ‎Arabia, and income from other sources such as foreign sales of the domestic ‎defense industry.‎ v Internal Security Forces:‎ Principal security agencies– national police force of more than about 122,000 ‎members and Central Security Forces, a paramilitary body of about 300,000, ‎mostly conscripts, which augmented regular police in guarding buildings and ‎strategic sites and controlling demonstrations. Several other government ‎agencies had own law enforcement bodies.‎ General Directorate for State Security Investigations main intelligence ‎organization monitoring suspected subversive and opposition groups and ‎suppressing Islamic extremists

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